10 Jul Artificial gravity
According to many researchers in the field of cosmic physiology and psychology, the main means of protection against adverse effects of zero gravity in interplanetary space flight should be the artificial strength of severity (East), created due to the rotation of the ship around the center of the masses. For the first time, the idea of creating East was expressed to. E. Tsiolkovsky in 1911. In the work “Study of world spaces”.
When creating an end, albeit the most insignificant, the human body and surrounding objects gain weight, appears “top” and “bottom”. Artificial gravity will stimulate the work of the cardiovascular system, musculoskeletal system and other body functions. However, ITS not only does not exclude, but also involves a wide range of sporting events using various sports equipment. In particular, opinions are expressed about the creation of a special room on the interplanetary ship, in which the centrifuga will work, on which the astronauts will receive “doses” of earthly gravity, as well as overloads with which they will meet when planting the descent apparatus on the study planet and upon returning to the ground. The whole complex will protect the body of astronauts from the harmful effects of zero gravity and maintain mental performance.
From physics it is known that the weight of the body during rotation depends on the angular velocity and the radius of the circle along which the movement occurs. Calculations show that to create an end equal to the earth, a rotating ship must have a radius of several hundred meters. With a decrease in the radius, the speed of rotation should increase, which can have an adverse effect on the mental state of a person due to irritation of the vestibular apparatus.
The first works on the justification of the minimum effective East necessary to maintain a normal posture and coordination of movements were carried out immediately after the flight. Gagarin. Studies were conducted on animals; In conditions of zero gravity, animals were randomly rotated in various planes, sometimes in two or three at the same time. For the magnitude of centrrilled acceleration necessary to create the minimum effective East, one was accepted in which the position and nature of the movement of animals were similar to ordinary behavior in laboratory conditions.
When creating ITS with an acceleration of 0.05 to LG, the nature of motor activity has significantly changed, respectively, the increase in the amount of reproducible accelerations. With a slight acceleration of animals, it attributed to the wall of the apparatus; With acceleration to 0.18g, rats were occasionally observed in the longitudinal axis of the body. Когда ускорение достигало 0,28g, животные уже опирались конечностями о поверхность аппарата и пытались передвигаться по стенкам, однако их лапы скользили, движения были очень частыми, а направление перемещения все время менялось. With accelerations from 0.28 to 0.3g, animals in flight behaved like in the laboratory conditions: either they occupied the “sedentary” position for them, or slowly and calmly moved. After the indicated line of their movements in all cases, they became smooth and sufficiently coordinated.
The criterion of the amount of accelerations necessary for the East served not only motor acts, but also other indicators characterizing the state of motor activity (in particular, registration of bioelectric activity of muscles).
Analysis of the results of research on this problem carried out both in ours and abroad made it possible to conclude that the acceleration of 0.28-0.3LG can be considered sufficient not only to prevent motor disorders in animals, but also to normalize motor activity man.
For a deeper study of the effect of prolonged rotation on the human body in the Soviet Union, a special orbit stand with a residential compartment was created, the volume of which was
14 m3, where comfortable sofas, table, TV, radio, toilet, shower, etc. were placed. D. The residential compartment was fixed on the shoulder of the centrifuge (radius 10 m), which simultaneously served as the corridor, according to which the experimenters could walk during the rotation of the stand. No matter how the cabin deviated during rotation, the testers were always perpendicular to the floor, which allowed experiments to be carried out lasting 30 days or more.
At this stand l. BUT. Kitaev-Smyk and r. R. Galle conducted several series of experiments, when the speed of rotation of the cab was 24 and 36 hails, the radius of the spaceship should reach 90 m.
To translate these calculations into reality, the space aircraft may have to be built in the form of a large ring (“bagel”) or in the form of “dumbbells”. During the flight, these designs will constantly rotate around the center of mass. Of course, the implementation of these ideas is associated with significant technical difficulties, but there is no doubt that all of them will be overcome and artificial gravity will be created on the interplanetary ship.