07 Oct Stomatitis in children You will have a child!
Almost every parent has to deal with such a problem as stomatitis in children. It is an inflammation of the oral mucosa. To help the baby cope with this rather painful phenomenon, you need to know the causes of its occurrence, the symptoms and features of the course of different types of stomatitis.
Candidiasis stomatitis (thrush)
Candidal stomatitis is caused by a yeast fungus. This is the most common form that occurs in children from a very early age (almost from the neonatal period).
Causes of candidal stomatitis in children. The fungus can affect the mucous membrane of the mouth even during the passage of the child through the birth canal if the mother was sick with vaginal thrush. Often, candidal stomatitis in infants occurs with insufficient care for the baby’s oral cavity or mother’s breasts. Remaining breast milk creates a slightly acidic reaction in the mouth, ideal for the development of the fungus.
Symptoms of thrush: the child becomes a little capricious; may require frequent breastfeeding; on the tongue (mostly), gums, on the inner surface of the cheeks and lips there is a white, curd-like coating; older children complain of an unpleasant taste in the mouth. An increase in temperature can be observed in the chronic form of stomatitis.
Candidiasis stomatitis can manifest itself in varying degrees: from mild to severe. With a mild form of stomatitis, white plaque is easily erased from the mucosa without causing irritation. Plaque in more severe forms acquires a light gray tint. It is poorly, and sometimes not completely, removed from the surface, leaving in its place a rather edematous mucosa, which bleeds at the slightest touch.
It most often occurs in children between one and three years of age. Its causative agent is the ubiquitous herpes virus, which causes inflammation of the damaged mucosa.
Causes of herpetic stomatitis. By the age of one year, the innate supply of antibodies in the baby’s body is scooped out, and the acquired immunity cannot always resist the virus.
The herpes virus is transmitted by airborne droplets or by contact. The penetration of the virus into the cell is facilitated in the presence of its physical damage (due to injury by the nipple, toys, hands).
Symptoms of herpetic stomatitis in children. With herpetic stomatitis, a rash appears on the mucous. It, as a rule, is localized in one place, passing through four stages in its development.
With a mild form of herpetic stomatitis, the mucous membranes first become brightly colored. Gradually, they are converted into bubbles (5-6 pieces), which soon burst. Ulcers (erosion) form at the site of burst bubbles. When they acquire a marble color, we can talk about the extinction of the disease. At the time of the formation of the rash, the child’s body temperature may rise to 37.5 degrees.
The moderate form of stomatitis is accompanied by a rise in temperature to 38-39 degrees, general drowsiness and weakness, loss of appetite. The amount of rash increases to 20 elements. They can merge with each other, forming foci. Sometimes they go to the outer shells of the lips and face.
Aphthous (allergic) stomatitis
The causes of aphthous stomatitis are not well understood. The most common version is an allergic reaction of the body to some kind of irritant. There is also an assumption that this type of stomatitis is associated with a violation of the gastrointestinal tract.
Most often, aphthous stomatitis occurs in school-age children. Sometimes they are suffered by preschoolers.
Symptoms of aphthous stomatitis in children. At first glance, the sores of this type of stomatitis (aphtha) are a bit similar to those in herpetic stomatitis. But, unlike him, they have smooth edges and a bright red bottom, which, as the disease progresses, is first covered with a translucent film. After breaking through the film, the aphtha becomes available for other infections, which can complicate the disease.
Rashes are localized most often on the mucous membrane of the lips and cheeks. Sometimes aphthous stomatitis can be accompanied by an increase in temperature up to 38 degrees.
Stomatitis in children – treatment and prevention
Treatment of stomatitis in children requires an integrated approach and, of course, taking into account the nature of the occurrence of a particular type of this disease.
With all forms of stomatitis, it is necessary to isolate the child from other children. At home, he needs to provide personal utensils and hygiene items.
To exclude the possibility of joining other diseases of a bacterial nature to the overall picture of stomatitis, it is necessary to pay special attention to caring for the oral cavity. It involves not only basic hygiene procedures (brushing teeth), but also rinsing with special antiseptic solutions (they will be prescribed by a doctor). For very young patients up to a year old, it is recommended to wipe the oral cavity with a cloth moistened with xylitol solution.
After recovery, it is necessary to replace the baby’s toothbrush, pacifier and nipple on the bottle with new ones.
Often, stomatitis is accompanied by painful sensations, which can be alleviated with a variety of teething gels. They have a local anesthetic and cooling effect.
As for certain types of stomatitis, the main treatment depends on the individual “preferences” of the pathogen. For example, candidal stomatitis (thrush) develops in a slightly acidic environment. Therefore, to eliminate the nutritional conditions for yeast, it is necessary to create an alkaline environment. Rubbing the oral mucosa, as well as pacifiers, bottles or nipples of the mother’s breasts with a 2% solution of soda will help in this (1 teaspoon per glass of boiled water). For the treatment of moderate and severe forms of candidiasis, the doctor will prescribe special antifungal drugs.
For the treatment of herpetic stomatitis, antiviral drugs are prescribed, mainly in the form of ointments. For the purpose of antiseptic treatment and relieving inflammation, you can wipe the mucous membrane or rinse your mouth with propolis, decoctions of chamomile and sage. Foods that provoke additional irritation of the mucous membrane should be excluded from the diet: hot, salty, sweet, bitter, sour foods. In chronic forms of herpetic stomatitis, it is possible to prescribe a maintenance course of vitamins and immunostimulants.
Treatment of aphthous stomatitis is ambiguous, since the cause of this disease must be established individually. Regarding this, a course of treatment in the form of the use of antibacterial drugs will be prescribed by a gastroenterologist, antiallergic drugs – by an allergist, sanitation of the oral cavity with antibacterial solutions – by a dentist.
Regardless of its nature, stomatitis in children requires timely, attentive and comprehensive treatment. Compliance with all the prescribed recommendations will alleviate the symptoms of the disease and speed up the recovery of your baby.