Types of thermal insulation materials

For thermal insulation, materials are used that are divided into two groups: organic and inorganic. The first group includes classic materials that were used by our ancestors: peat, shavings, tow, and the like. The inorganic group includes modern materials: mineral wool, polystyrene, expanded polystyrene. These heaters are distinguished by great manufacturability and improved performance.


This material is the most popular insulation. It is used for frame structures. It is easy to use, cheap material. Unfortunately, it cannot be called an ideal insulation, as it has many disadvantages. The main disadvantage is the combustibility of polystyrene, it is worth noting that it is also characteristic of polystyrene foam. During combustion, many harmful substances are released. The foam is particularly fragile, with the formation of various cracks and damage, the insulation layer is broken. In general, it is worth saying that in the presence of modern analogues, it is better to use other materials for insulation.

Mineral wool

Mineral wool is gradually replacing polystyrene from a number of thermal insulation materials. This modern material characterizes versatility. It is produced in the form of a fibrous substance or in the form of dense slabs. Air gaps between the cotton layers provide excellent thermal insulation properties. Minvata also has excellent sound insulation. The disadvantage is the presence of formaldehyde in the composition.

Small particles of cotton wool have carcinogenic properties, so it is better to use it in the form of dense plates. To protect the inhabitants from the spread of particles, it is necessary to carry out vapor and waterproofing membranes. Another disadvantage of mineral wool is its sensitivity to moisture. Already at 3 percent humidity, thermal insulation deteriorates by half. If you used mineral wool as a heat insulator, you must protect it with an additional layer of waterproofing.

Expanded polystyrene and polyurethane foam

When insulating frame structures, these materials are less common, but it is worth noting that the thermal insulation properties of extruded polystyrene foam are much higher than mineral wool analogues. The extruded type of expanded polystyrene differs from polystyrene in less flammability. The material is highly durable and has good protection against the effects of chemical elements.

It is worth paying attention to it during thermal insulation work, experts gave it the name “eternal”. Polyurethane foam is also a high-tech material. It is safe and reliable in terms of environmental friendliness and flammability. Characteristics are maintained at large temperature ranges. The material is universal, as it is produced with indicators of different densities.


An advanced insulation that has the highest performance of all the materials already listed. The only drawback of the material is that it is problematic to lay it, it is better for experienced specialists to work with it.